The federal government heads the largest and most influential law enforcement agencies in the world:
- Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI)
- Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
- Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATFE)
- U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP)
- Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
Unlike most local and state police organizations, federal law enforcement agencies typically require a college education as well as superior professional skills and physical fitness. In addition to possessing very high minimum qualifications, most of these organizations carry considerable prestige, which attracts some of the best and brightest law enforcement professionals.
Other agencies that perform federal law enforcement duties:
- Veterans Affairs
- Environmental Protection Agency
- Health and Human Services
- Internal Revenue Service
- U.S. Marshals Service
- Secret Service
- Postal Inspection Service
Basic Requirements for Federal Law Enforcement Jobs
Although the exact qualifications necessary to obtain employment with a federal agency may vary, most require the following minimum qualifications:
- United States citizenship
- Be at least 21 years of age
- Bachelor’s degree
- Valid driver’s license
- Superior physical condition
- Moral character
Some agencies like Customs and Border Protection may only require a high school diploma, but because competition is so intense for these jobs it is quite difficult to join any of these agencies with only minimum qualifications.
- Grand Canyon University - B.S. in Justice Studies and M.S. in Criminal Justice
- Southern New Hampshire University - A.S. in Criminal Justice, B.S. in Criminal Justice - Criminology, and M.S. in Criminal Justice
- Grantham University - B.A in Criminal Justice - Optional Concentration in Homeland Security or Computer Forensic Investigation
- Rasmussen College - Law Enforcement Associate's Degree and Post-Degree Certificates; Criminal Justice Bachelor's Degrees
- Strayer University - Bachelors of Science Degree in Criminal Justice
- Michigan State University - Online Master of Science in Law Enforcement Intelligence and Analysis
- Saint Joseph's University - Online Master of Science in Criminal Justice
- Utica College - Online Bachelor's of Science in Criminal Justice
Federal law enforcement agencies usually perform their duties within specific industries so many grant preference to candidates with academic or professional backgrounds in those fields. For example, DEA candidates with degrees in chemistry receive greater consideration than those with non-topical degrees. Similarly, candidates with accounting or financial experience are more likely to be hired by the IRS.
The elite status of many of these organizations permits them to screen for the most highly trained. Skills that are acquired through the military translate well into many federal law enforcement jobs, so veterans are usually given preference in the hiring process in addition to a starting pay grade that factors in their total years in service. Elite military qualifications like sniper/observer, special operations, or aircraft pilot provide additional benefits in the application process. Law enforcement veterans from the local and state level with similar experience in SWAT and counterterrorism units also enjoy special consideration.
The Evolving Role of Federal Law Enforcement Officers
In recent years, many federal law enforcement organizations have re-aligned their agency strategies to focus primarily on national security. This has required a change in philosophy, the implementation of new laws like the Patriot Act, and additional considerations when operating in the field. Organizations like Customs and Border Protection are now much more concerned with interdicting potential terrorists and weapons of mass destruction than they have been in the past.
The primary responsibility of all of these organizations is protecting the lives of Americans, upholding the U.S. Constitution and ensuring the safety of the nation. In order to perform these duties, most federal law enforcement agencies require a thorough knowledge of the legal framework in which they operate. Not only does this require a comprehensive knowledge of federal statutes, but it also requires knowledge of legal cases that may impact the activities of officers. Typically, the federal agency will analyze laws and cases to formulate a policy that its employees are expected to follow. While this may be limited to purely legal or constitutional situations, in many cases it also involves sensitivity to other socioeconomic considerations like environmental impact and cultural understanding.
Training for Federal Law Enforcement Jobs
Commissioned officers within these federal agencies are usually expected to complete lengthy and intensive training programs. Because these professionals will serve in high-risk situations, physical fitness is emphasized along with broad knowledge of legal and national security issues. Most training programs will include a physical fitness regimen similar to that found in military training camps. This may involve daily runs of several miles, obstacle courses, and strength training. Firearms and driving training are usually required to complete the training program.
As federal employees, these officers will be primarily concerned with the enforcement of national laws, although in some cases international or local laws may have some bearing on their actions. Courses taken during academy training will provide an academic foundation in the various laws that particular agency enforces. In some organizations like the FBI, a general understanding is provided with additional instruction in a more specialized area like civil rights or financial crimes is offered upon job assignment.
Federal Jobs in Law Enforcement Support
In addition to the commissioned law enforcement officers in these agencies, there are a number of professionals who serve vital support roles. Intelligence officers who collect information from a wide variety of sources are often critical personnel in these agencies. They provide the actionable recommendations that inform tactical decisions, as well as share information with other agencies.
Law enforcement administrators perform many of the management duties that support policing operations. They procure weapons, vehicles and equipment that are essential to mission success. They also analyze agency operations to identify weaknesses in the system, which they remedy through administrative improvements. They also perform many of the legal duties necessary to detain or prosecute offenders.